Climate Engineering Law

Weather Modification Law in the USA | Link

Summary of court cases and principles of tort liability for cloud seeding, including both drought or flood allegedly caused by cloud seeding

October 22, 2006 | This essay briefly reviews governmental regulation of weather modification, then concentrates on judicial opinions regarding modified weather or cloud seeding and suggests how future weather modification torts might be argued. The scope of this essay does not cover liability for inadvertant weather modificiation, such as:

  • release of heat or smoke from industrial smokestacks;
  • injection of water vapor and particulates from jet airplane engines into the dry stratosphere;
  • release of heat and airborne particulates from cities;
  • pollution from automobiles;
  • global warming from release of CO2 by burning wood, coal, oil, or natural gas; or
  • removal of ozone by release of fluorocarbons into the atmosphere

This essay also does not consider purely local weather modification, such as dissipating fog in supercooled clouds at an airport.

This essay was initially written to inform:

  • potential plaintiffs (e.g., farmers, ranchers, and people who might be the victim of floods
  • meteorology students, and
  • attorneys and law students working in either environmental law or water law, about the nationwide law in the USA that affects tort liability for cloud seeding.

http://www.rbs2.com/weather.pdf


NOAA Weather Modification Report Forms | corporateservices.noaa.gov


NOAA Instructions for Initial Report on Weather Modification Activities | Link

http://www.corporateservices.noaa.gov/~noaaforms/eforms/nf17-4.pdf

Interim (Weather Modification) Activity Reports and Final Report | Link

http://www.corporateservices.noaa.gov/~noaaforms/eforms/nf17-4a.pdf


United States Weather Modification Laws


  • Public Law 92-205 – 15 USC CHAPTER 9A
    WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES OR ATTEMPTS; REPORTING REQUIREMENT – 01/03/2012 | Link

    (Pub. L. 92-205, Sec. 6, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 736; Pub. L. 93-436, Oct. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 1212; Pub. L. 94-490, Sec. 6(b), Oct. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 2362; Pub. L. 96-547, Sec. 2, Dec. 18, 1980, 94 Stat. 3217; Pub. L. 99-272, title VI, Sec. 6081, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 135.)

    AMENDMENTS
    1986 – Pub. L. 99-272 authorized appropriation of $100,000 for fiscal years ending September 30, 1986, 1987, and 1988.
    1980 – Pub. L. 96-547 amended Pub. L. 96-547, thereby inserting provisions setting forth authorization of appropriations for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1981.
    1976 – Pub. L. 94-490 authorized appropriation of $200,000 for each of fiscal years 1978, 1979, and 1980.
    1974 – Pub. L. 93-436 extended authorization of appropriation of $200,000 for each of fiscal years ending June 30, 1975, 1976, and 1977.
    Notes on 15 U.S.C. § 330e : US Code – Notes | Link

  • PART 908
    MAINTAINING RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES – Code of Federal Regulations – 01-01-2011 | Link
  • Proposed Information Collection;
    Comment Request; Weather Modification Activities Reports – 04/05/2011 | Link
  • OMB Control Number:0648-0025 History Link
  • Texas Department of Licensing and Regulation
  • Texas Agriculture Codes | Link
  • Texas Weather Modification Laws | Link
  • Texas Weather Modification Rules | Link
  • Weather Modification – Law and Policy 1971 | Link
  • Weather Modification and Control – Some International Legal Implications 1967 | Link

Lessons from US Weather Modification Law for Geoengineering – From rainmakers to climate gods | Link

Climate Ownership?

http://www.law.uh.edu/faculty/thester/courses/Emerging%20Tech%202011/Gardner%20Geoengineering%20Paper.pdf


International Geoengineering & Weather Modification Laws


  • The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Stratospheric Geoengineering | Link
    F15-KC135-SRM-geoengineering
  • Geoengineering in relation to the Convention on Biological Diversity | Link
    Geoengineering-in-relation-to-the-Convention-on-Biological-Diversity
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

    THE CBD OPENED FOR SIGNATURE IN JUNE 1992 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE IN DECEMBER 1993. THE UNITED STATES HAS SIGNED BUT HAS NOT BECOME A PARTY TO THE CBD. THE KEY PRINCIPLE OF THE CBD IS THAT COUNTRIES HAVE BOTH THE SOVEREIGN RIGHT TO EXPLOIT THEIR OWN RESOURCES PURSUANT TO THEIR OWN DOMESTIC POLICIES AND THE RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE THAT ACTIVITIES WITHIN THEIR CONTROL DO NOT CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE ENVIRONMENT OF OTHER STATES OR TO AREAS BEYOND THE LIMITS OF NATIONAL JURISDICTION.117 UNDER ARTICLE 8, PARTIES MUST ESTABLISH A SYSTEM AND GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF PROTECTED AREAS WHERE SPECIAL MEASURES NEED TO BE TAKEN TO CONSERVE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY.118 THEY MUST ALSO, TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE AND APPROPRIATE, REHABILITATE AND RESTORE DEGRADED ECOSYSTEMS AND PROMOTE THE RECOVERY OF THREATENED SPECIES.119 PERHAPS MOST IMPORTANTLY FOR GEOENGINEERING PROJECTS, THEY MUST REGULATE, MANAGE, OR CONTROL THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE AND RELEASE OF LIVING MODIFIED ORGANISMS WHICH ARE LIKELY TO HAVE ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MUST PREVENT THE INTRODUCTION OF, CONTROL, OR ERADICATE ALIEN SPECIES THAT THREATEN ECOSYSTEMS, HABITATS, OR SPECIES.120 THESE REQUIREMENTS COULD CONSTRAIN IF NOT PROHIBIT CERTAIN GEOENGINEERING PROJECTS THAT INVOLVE RELEASING LIVING ORGANISMS, SUCH AS ALGAE, INTO NEW, OPEN ECOSYSTEMS TO SEQUESTER CARBON. MORE SPECIFICALLY, IN 2008 THE NINTH MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CBD (COP) NOTED THE WORK OF THE LONDON CONVENTION AND THE LONDON PROTOCOL REGARDING OCEAN FERTILIZATION AND REQUESTED THAT ITS OWN PARTIES ACT TO ENSURE THAT OCEAN FERTILIZATION ACTIVITIES DO NOT TAKE PLACE UNTIL EITHER THERE IS ADEQUATE SCIENTIFIC BASIS ON WHICH TO JUSTIFY SUCH ACTIVITIES OR THE ACTIVITIES ARE SMALL-SCALE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH STUDIES WITHIN COASTAL WATERS.

  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

    UNCLOS OPENED FOR SIGNATURE IN DECEMBER 1982 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE ON NOVEMBER 16, 1994. DESPITE PARTICIPATING IN THE UNCLOS NEGOTIATIONS, THE UNITED STATES DECLINED TO SIGN THE FINAL AGREEMENT AND HAS NOT BECOME A PARTY SINCE THEN, ALTHOUGH IT VIEWS MANY PROVISIONS OF UNCLOS AS CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW THAT IT WAS ALREADY OBLIGATED TO FOLLOW. UNCLOS ESTABLISHES A LEGAL REGIME GOVERNING ACTIVITIES ON, OVER, AND UNDER THE WORLD’S OCEANS AND DEFINES COUNTRIES’ JURISDICTIONS OVER, AND RIGHTS OF ACCESS TO, THE OCEANS AND THEIR RESOURCES. ARTICLE 194 OF THE UNCLOS IMPOSES A DUTY ON ITS PARTIES TO TAKE, INDIVIDUALLY OR JOINTLY, MEASURES THAT ARE NECESSARY TO PREVENT, REDUCE, AND CONTROL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM ANY SOURCE. THE UNCLOS DEFINES POLLUTION AS ANY HUMAN-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION OF SUBSTANCES OR ENERGY INTO THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT THAT RESULTS OR IS LIKELY TO RESULT IN DELETERIOUS EFFECTS SUCH AS HARM TO LIVING RESOURCES AND MARINE LIFE, HAZARDS TO HUMAN HEALTH, HINDRANCE TO MARINE ACTIVITIES, OR IMPAIRMENT OF SEA WATER QUALITY. THIS PROVISION COULD HAVE SIGNIFICANCE FOR A GEOENGINEERING PROJECT THAT POLLUTES THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT, BY LAND, SEA, OR AIR. IN ADDITION TO, ARGUABLY, MANDATING THAT A COUNTRY NOT ENGAGE IN THAT ACTIVITY, ONCE A GEOENGINEERING PROJECT RESULTED IN THE POLLUTION OF THE OCEAN ENVIRONMENT, ARTICLE 194 WOULD IMPOSE A DUTY ON THE MEMBER COUNTRY RESPONSIBLE FOR THAT POLLUTION TO CONTROL AND LIMIT ITS SPREAD. ARTICLE 192 OF THE UNCLOS IMPOSES A GENERAL OBLIGATION ON COUNTRIES TO PROTECT AND PRESERVE THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT. THESE PROVISIONS COULD BE IMPLICATED BY OCEAN FERTILIZATION AND SOME OTHER GEOENGINEERING ACTIVITIES IF THEY HAVE A NEGATIVE EFFECT ON THE MARINE ECOSYSTEM. LARGE-SCALE OCEAN FERTILIZATION PROJECTS COULD ALSO IMPLICATE SEVERAL UNCLOS PROVISIONS, INCLUDING ARTICLE 56, AND 238 THROUGH 241 ON MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.

  • London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) and London Protocol

    THE LONDON CONVENTION WAS OPENED FOR SIGNATURE IN DECEMBER 1972 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE IN AUGUST 1975. THE LONDON PROTOCOL WAS AGREED TO IN 1996 AS A MEANS OF MODERNIZING AND EVENTUALLY REPLACING THE LONDON CONVENTION. THE UNITED STATES BECAME A PARTY TO THE LONDON CONVENTION IN 1974, BUT IT HAS NOT BECOME A PARTY TO THE LONDON PROTOCOL. CONTRACTING PARTIES PLEDGE TO TAKE ALL POSSIBLE STEPS TO PREVENT THE POLLUTION OF THE SEA BY THE DUMPING OF SUBSTANCES THAT ARE LIABLE TO CREATE HAZARDS TO HUMAN HEALTH, HARM LIVING RESOURCES AND MARINE LIFE, OR INTERFERE WITH OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF THE SEA.112 HOWEVER, OCEAN FERTILIZATION AND OTHER GEOENGINEERING PROJECTS THAT ENTAIL THE DELIBERATE DISPOSAL OF SUBSTANCES INTO THE SEA MIGHT NOT IMPLICATE THE LONDON CONVENTION’S PROHIBITIONS ON DUMPING IF THEY ARE DEEMED PLACED INTO THE SEA “FOR A PURPOSE OTHER THAN THE MERE DISPOSAL THEREOF, IF NOT CONTRARY TO THE AIM OF THE CONVENTION.”113 NEVERTHELESS, THE PARTIES HAVE RECENTLY CONSIDERED AMENDMENTS AND RESOLUTIONS TO THESE AGREEMENTS TO ADDRESS SOME GEOENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES MORE EXPLICITLY. FOR EXAMPLE, THE 2006 AMENDMENTS TO THE LONDON PROTOCOL PROVIDE GUIDANCE ON THE MEANS BY WHICH SUB-SEABED GEOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAN BE CONDUCTED, STATING THAT CARBON DIOXIDE STREAMS MAY ONLY BE CONSIDERED FOR DUMPING IF (1) DISPOSAL IS INTO A SUB-SEABED GEOLOGICAL FORMATION; (2) THE SUBSTANCES DUMPED CONSIST OVERWHELMINGLY OF CARBON DIOXIDE; AND (3) NO OTHER WASTES OR MATTER WERE ADDED TO THEM FOR THE PURPOSE OF DISPOSING OF THEM. TWO YEARS LATER, IN 2008, THE PARTIES ADOPTED RESOLUTION LC-LP.1,114 AGREEING THAT OCEAN FERTILIZATION RESEARCH ACTIVITIES DO NOT TO CONSTITUTE DUMPING UNDER THE LONDON CONVENTION AND PROTOCOL.

  • Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP or the Convention)

    CLRTAP OPENED FOR SIGNATURE IN 1979 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE ON MARCH 16, 1983. THE UNITED STATES BECAME A PARTY TO THE CONVENTION IN 1979. CONTRACTING PARTIES COMMIT THEMSELVES TO LIMITING, AND TO GRADUALLY PREVENTING AND REDUCING THEIR DISCHARGES OF AIR POLLUTANTS AND THUS TO COMBATING THE RESULTING TRANSBOUNDARY POLLUTION. LONG-RANGE TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION IS DEFINED BY THE CONVENTION AS THE HUMAN INTRODUCTION OF SUBSTANCES OR ENERGY INTO THE AIR WHICH HAVE DELETERIOUS EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH, THE ENVIRONMENT, OR MATERIAL PROPERTY IN ANOTHER COUNTRY, AND FOR WHICH THE CONTRIBUTION OF INDIVIDUAL EMISSION SOURCES OR GROUPS OF SOURCES CANNOT BE DISTINGUISHED.130 IT IS UNCERTAIN WHICH GEOENGINEERING ACTIVITIES CLRTAP WOULD REGULATE, OR HOW SUCH REGULATION WOULD BE IMPLEMENTED.

  • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (the Convention)

    THE VIENNA CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE OZONE LAYER WAS OPENED FOR SIGNATURE IN 1985 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE IN 1988. THE CONVENTION, ALONG WITH THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE OZONE LAYER, WHICH WAS OPENED FOR SIGNATURE IN 1987 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE IN 1989, AIMS TO CONTROL THE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF THE MOST COMMERCIALLY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SIGNIFICANT OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES.132 THE UNITED STATES BECAME A PARTY TO THE VIENNA CONVENTION IN 1986. IT IS ALSO A PARTY TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL (SINCE 1988) AND HAS AGREED TO ALL FOUR AMENDMENTS TO THE PROTOCOL. PARTIES TO THESE AGREEMENTS, WITHIN THEIR CAPABILITIES, ARE EXPECTED TO: (1) COOPERATE TO BETTER UNDERSTAND AND ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE OZONE LAYER AND THE EFFECTS OF THE MODIFICATION OF THE OZONE LAYER; (2) ADOPT APPROPRIATE MEASURES AND COOPERATE IN HARMONIZING APPROPRIATE POLICIES TO CONTROL THE ACTIVITIES THAT ARE CAUSING THE MODIFICATION OF THE OZONE LAYER; (3) COOPERATE IN FORMULATING MEASURES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONVENTION; AND (4) COOPERATE WITH COMPETENT INTERNATIONAL BODIES TO IMPLEMENT THE CONVENTION.133 CERTAIN STRATOSPHERIC AEROSOL INJECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOENGINEERING, TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY POSE A RISK TO THE OZONE LAYER, HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO IMPLICATE MANY OF THE PHASE-OUT PROVISIONS OF THE CONVENTION AND THE PROTOCOLS.

  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

    The UNFCC opened for signature in 1992 and entered into force in 1994. the United States became a party to the unfccc in 1992. under the UNFCC, parties are required to: (1) gather and share information on greenhouse gas (ghg) emissions, national policies, and best practices, (2) launch national strategies for addressing ghg emissions and adapting to expected impacts, and (3) cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change. parties are also obligated to cooperation and exchange information on technologies, and potential economic and social consequences of response strategies, as well as to give full consideration to actions to meet the needs and concerns of developing countries that may be adversely affected by, inter alia, the implementation of measures to respond to climate change.

  • Kyoto Protocol (the Protocol)

    THE KYOTO PROTOCOL OPENED FOR SIGNATURE IN 1997 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE IN 2005. THE UNITED STATES HAS SIGNED BUT NOT BECOME A PARTY TO THE KYOTO PROTOCOL.103 THE PROTOCOL SUPPLEMENTS THE UNFCCC BY COMMITTING ITS HIGH INCOME PARTIES TO LEGALLY BINDING REDUCTIONS IN EMISSIONS OF GREENHOUSE GASES THROUGH 2012.

  • Copenhagen Accord (the Accord)

    UNLIKE THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND THE UNFCCC, THE 2009 COPENHAGEN ACCORD IS A NON-BINDING POLITICAL AGREEMENT. NEVERTHELESS, THE UNITED STATES HAS INDICATED ITS INTENT TO ASSOCIATE WITH THE COPENHAGEN ACCORD. THE ACCORD ASKS ANNEX 1 PARTIES OF THE UNFCCC TO SET THEIR OWN INDIVIDUAL EMISSIONS TARGETS FOR 2020 AND TO MEASURE, REPORT, AND VERIFY THEIR PROGRESS TOWARDS THESE TARGETS PURSUANT TO GUIDELINES ADOPTED BY THE
    UNFCCC CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES (“COP”), AND NON-ANNEX 1 PARTIES TO DEVELOP “MITIGATION ACTIONS” FOR THE REDUCTION OF GHG EMISSIONS, THOUGH NOT EMISSIONS TARGETS, AND MEASURE, REPORT, AND VERIFY THEIR IMPLEMENTATION OF THESE ACTIONS.

  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD or the Convention)

    ENMOD OPENED FOR SIGNATURE IN MAY 1977 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE ON OCTOBER 5, 1978. THE UNITED STATES BECAME A PARTY TO ENMOD IN 1979. ENMOD’S AIM IS TO PROHIBIT THE MILITARY OR ANY OTHER HOSTILE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES WHICH HAVE WIDESPREAD, LONG-LASTING OR SEVERE EFFECTS AS THE MEANS OF DESTRUCTION, DAMAGE, OR INJURY TO ANY PARTY. THE CONVENTION DEFINES THE TERM “ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES” AS ANY TECHNIQUE FOR CHANGING—THROUGH THE DELIBERATE MANIPULATION OF NATURAL PROCESSES—THE DYNAMICS, COMPOSITION, OR STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH, INCLUDING ITS BIOTA, LITHOSPHERE, HYDROSPHERE, ATMOSPHERE, OR OUTER SPACE. THIS DEFINITION MAY ENCOMPASS CERTAIN GEOENGINEERING ACTIVITIES. HOWEVER, THE CONVENTION FURTHER STATES THAT THE PROVISIONS OF THE CONVENTION DO NOT HINDER THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR PEACEFUL PURPOSES, SUCH THAT PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION MAY UNDERTAKE TO FACILITATE, AND HAVE THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN, THE FULLEST POSSIBLE EXCHANGE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL INFORMATION ON THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR PEACEFUL PURPOSES.

  • 2001 – H.R.2977 Space Preservation Act – Library of Congress FAILED

    DENNIS KUCINICH INTRODUCED THE FIRST SPACE PRESERVATION ACT, ON OCTOBER 2, 2001, WITH NO COSPONSORS. THE BILL WAS DESIGNED TO “PRESERVE THE COOPERATIVE, PEACEFUL USES OF SPACE FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL HUMANKIND.” THE BILL WAS REFERRED TO THE HOUSE SCIENCE, THE HOUSE ARMED SERVICES, AND THE HOUSE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEES. THE BILL DIED IN COMMITTEE (APRIL 9, 2002) BECAUSE OF AN UNFAVORABLE EXECUTIVE COMMENT RECEIVED FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE.

      Proposed ban on the following:

    • electronic, psychotronic, or information weapons;
    • chemtrails;
    • high altitude ultra low frequency weapons systems;
    • plasma, electromagnetic, sonic, or ultrasonic weapons;
    • laser weapons systems;
    • strategic, theater, tactical, or extraterrestrial weapons; and
    • chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons.

ADDITIONAL RESEARCH | LINK


WMO STATEMENT ON THE STATUS OF WEATHER MODIFICATION 
http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/wmp/STATEMENTS/statwme.pdf

Cooling the Earth Through Solar Radiation Management: The need for research and an approach to its governance (International Risk Governance Council (IRGC))
http://www.irgc.org/IMG/pdf/SRM_Opinion_Piece_web.pdf

The Solar Radiation Management Governance (Environmental Defense Fund (edf.org) – Royal Society (royalsociety.org) – TWAS, the academy of sciences for the developing world based in Italy (twas.org))
http://royalsociety.org/uploadedFiles/Royal_Society_Content/policy/projects/solar-radiation-governance/DES2391_SRMGI%20report_web.pdf

Provisions for Co-operation between States in Weather Modification (1980)
http://www.unep.org/law/PDF/UNEPEnv-LawGuide&PrincN03.pdf

The Atmospheric Science Program at the Illinois State Water Survey (Stanley A. Changnon e Floyd A. Huff 1996)
http://www.isws.illinois.edu/pubdoc/MP/ISWSMP-171.pdf

Global Warming and Ice Ages: I. Prospects for Physics-Based Modulation of Global Change (E. Teller, L. Wood, R. Hyde 1997)
http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0229.pdf

WEATHER MODIFICATION Finding Common Ground (Michael Garstang, Roelof Bruintjes, Robert Sserafin, Harold Orville, Bruce Boe, William Cotton, and Joseph Warburton 2004)
http://www.wet-intl.com/Garstang_etal_2005_BAMS.pdf

Weather modification – a scenario for the future (Roland List, American Meteorological Society 2004)
https://docs.google.com/leaf?id=0B55Te4Zk8z7hYmVjZGE3ZWUtZDFjOC00ZWZjLWI5ZDctYzYyNzNiZDRjZmYw&sort=name&layout=list&pid=0B55Te4Zk8z7hNzNhZDJlMzQtYTlhOC00Nzc3LWE3YWItZGQ5ZTUxNTRhZjk2&cindex=21&pli=1

Weather modification Law in the USA (2006)
http://www.rbs2.com/weather.pdf

International Workshop On Weather Modification Technologies (2007 )
http://weathermod.org/souvenir.pdf

An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols (Philip J. Rasch, Simone Tilmes, Richard P. Turco,
Alan Robock, Luke Oman, Chih-Chieh Chean, Georgiy L. Stenchikov  and Rolando R. Garcia – 2008)
http://patriotportal.yolasite.com/resources/RaschPhilTrans.pdf

Unilateral Geoengineering – Non-technical Briefing Notes for a Workshop At the Council on Foreign Relations Washington (2008)
http://www.cfr.org/content/thinktank/GeoEng_041209.pdf

Weather Modification Association (WMA)
Position statement on the enviromental impact of using silver iodine as a cloud seeding agent (2009)
http://www.weathermodification.org/images/AGI_toxicity.pdf

Geo-engineering Options for Mitigating Climate Change (2009) (www.decc.gov.uk)
http://patriotportal.yolasite.com/resources/geo-engineering-0409.pdf

Sulfuric Acid Deposition from Stratospheric Geoengineering with Sulfate Aerosols  -  Journal of Geophysical Research (Ben Kravitz, Alan Robock, Luke Oman, Georgiy Stenchikov, and Allison B. Marquardt – 2009)
http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~shs/Climate%20change/Data%20sources/Robock%20aciddeposition.pdf

American Meteorological Society media advisory
http://www.ametsoc.org/amsnews/2008Weather_Mod_Advisory.pdf

Critical Issues in Weather Modification research (The National Academies)
http://www.chemtrails911.com/docs/-%202007/weather_mod_final.pdf

The Regulation of Geoengineering (House of Commons – UK) (2009-2010)
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmsctech/221/221.pdf

Efficacy of geoengineering to limit 21st century sea-level rise (J. C. Moorea, S. Jevrejeva, and A. Grinsted 2010)
http://www.pnas.org/content/107/36/15699.full.pdf

Geoengineering Cost Analysis (Aurora Flight Sciences) (2011)
http://keith.seas.harvard.edu/Misc/AuroraGeoReport.pdf

Geopiracy (ETC Group - http://www.etcgroup.org/)
https://www.cbd.int/doc/emerging-issues/etcgroup-geopiracy-2011-013-en.pdf

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