More than 1.21 GIGAWATTS!
A subject of much debate, these devices are performing modern magic! This article will highlight the most powerful upper atmospheric radars on the planet.
Below you will see a shareable version of the ClimateViewer 3D map of HAARP facilities.
Gakona, Alaska, USA
5.1 GW ERP : 2.8 – 10 MHz at 3.6 MW
HAARP (IRI) Ionospheric Research Instrument
Basically, the IRI is what is known as a phased array transmitter. It is designed to transmit a narrow beam of high power radio signals in the 2.8 to 10 MHz frequency range. Its antenna is built on a gravel pad having dimensions of 1000′ x 1200′ (about 33 acres). There are 180 towers, 72′ in height mounted on thermopiles spaced 80′ apart in a 12 x 15 rectangular grid. Each tower supports near its top, two pairs of crossed dipole antennas, one for the low band (2.8 to 8.3 MHz), the other for the high band (7 to 10 MHz). The antenna system is surrounded by an exclusion fence to prevent possible damage to the antenna towers or harm to large animals. An elevated ground screen, attached to the towers at the 15′ level, acts as a reflector for the antenna array while allowing vehicular access underneath to 30 environmentally-controlled transmitter shelters spaced throughout the array. Each shelter contains 6 pairs of 10 kW transmitters, for a total of 6 x 30 x 2 x 10 kW = 3600 kW available for transmission. The transmitters can be switched to drive either the low or high band antennas. Electric prime power is provided from an on-site power plant housing five, 2500 kW generators, each driven by a 3600 hp diesel engine. Four generators are required for operation of the IRI and the fifth is held as a spare. From a control room within the Operations Center, the transmission from each of the 180 crossed-dipole antennas is adjusted in a precise manner under computer control. In this manner, the complete array of antennas forms a narrow antenna pattern pointed upward toward the ionosphere. The transmitted signal diverges (spreads out) as it travels upward and is partially absorbed, at an altitude which depends on the transmitted HF frequency, in a small volume several tens of miles in diameter and a few hundred meters thick directly over the facility. The remainder of the transmitted signal either reflects back toward the earth or passes through the ionosphere into space, continuing to diverge as it does so. By the time it reaches the ionosphere, the intensity of the HF signal is less than 3 microwatts (0.000003 watt) per cm2, thousands of times less than the Sun’s natural electromagnetic radiation reaching the earth and hundreds of times less, even, than the variations in intensity of the Sun’s natural ultraviolet (UV) energy which creates the ionosphere.
Tromsø Ionospheric Heater
Ramfjordmoen, Near Tromsø, Norway
Tromso Incoherent Scatter Radar
Tromsø EISCAT VHF Radar
Tromsø EISCAT UHF
ALTAIR – The ARPA Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar | Link
Kwajalein, Marshall Islands
6 MW: VHF/UHF
FREQUENCY: VHF, UHF
WAVEFORMS: SELECTABLE AMONG 7 AT VHF, AMONG 9 AT UHF
PRF: 50 – 2976
PULSEWIDTH: 0.1 – 1000 ΜSEC
MODULATION: CW AND LINEAR FM CHIRP
BANDWIDTH: VHF -1 TO 7 MHZ, UHF – .05 TO 18 MHZ
The ARPA Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR) was developed and built at Roi-Namur in the Reagan Test Site between 1968 and 1970.
ALTAIR is a high-sensitivity, wide-bandwidth, coherent, instrumentation and tracking radar. ALTAIR supports several operating modes, including tracking and signature collection at VHF and UHF. Target resolution in VHF is 37 meters; in UHF, target resolution is 15 meters.
The ALTAIR system provides a large repertoire of narrow- and wide-band waveforms. The high sensitivity and relatively wide beamwidth of the radar make the instrument ideal for viewing dispersed targets. The same characteristics make the radar ideal for tracking space objects out to and beyond synchronous orbit.
ALTAIR can independently track up to 32 targets in both VHF and UHF. Simultaneous track in both frequencies allows realtime ionospheric correction to further refine tracking accuracy.
The ALTAIR Recording System (ARS) records phase and amplitude data, both Right Circular and Left Circular on all in-beam, tracked targets, transferring data to high speed disks at rates up to 56 MBytes/second. |Link
46M STEERABLE PARABOLIC DISH
Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility
Vasilsursk, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia
190 MW ERP: 4.5-9.3 MHz at 750 kW
The Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, located near the small town of Vasilsursk about 100 km eastward from Nizhniy Novgorod in Russia, is a laboratory for ionosphere research. Sura is capable of radiating about 190 MW, effective radiated power (ERP) on short waves. This facility is operated by the radiophysical research institute NIRFI in Nizhny Novgorod. The Sura facility was commissioned in 1981. Using this facility, Russian researchers studied the behaviour of the ionosphere and the effect of generation of low-frequency emission on modulation of ionosphere current. In the beginning, the Soviet Defense Department mostly footed the bill. The American HAARP ionospheric heater is similar to the Sura facility. The HAARP project began in 1993. Source: Wikipedia
Arecibo, Puerto Rico
2.5 MW: 440 MHz (center frequency)
305 m fixed dish
The William E Gordon Telescope
Those who see the Arecibo radio telescope for the first time are astounded by the enormousness of the reflecting surface, or radio mirror. The huge “dish” is 305 m (1000 feet) in diameter, 167 feet deep, and covers an area of about twenty acres. The surface is made of almost 40,000 perforated aluminum panels, each measuring about 3 feet by 6 feet, supported by a network of steel cables strung across the underlying karst sinkhole. It is a spherical (not parabolic) reflector. Source: naic.edu
NMRF – NATIONAL MST RADAR FACILITY
Gadanki, Andra Pradesh, India
2.5 MW – 53 MHz
The Indian MST Radar is a highly sensitive VHF phased array radar operating at 53 MHz with an peak power aperture product of 3 x 1010 Wm 2 .The system design specifications, including that of the intermediate stage of ST mode , are presented below :
The phased array consists of 1024 crossed three-element Yagi antennas occupying an area of 130m x 130m. It generates a radiation pattern with a main beam of 3 deg , gain of 36 dB and a side lobe level of -20 dB.The main beam can, in principle, be positioned at 82 different look angles in NS and EW plane. Source:vigyanprasar.gov.in
SUPERDARN – JICAMARCA
4.5 MW : 49.92 MHz
JICAMARCA PERU INCOHERENT SCATTER RADAR
JULIA JICAMARCA PERU COHERENT RADAR
Shigaraki MU Observatory
Shigaraki MU observatory, Shigaraki, Japan
1 MW: 46.5 MHz
103m circular phased array
The MU radar uses VHF radio waves with a frequency of 46.5 MHz (3.5 MHz bandwidth and 1 MW peak output power). The antenna area consists of 475 Yagi antennas arranged in a circular array of 103 m diameter. Fast beam steering and flexibility for various observation configurations are the characteristics of MU radar. In 2004, MU radar imaging observation system with ultra multi-channel digital receivers was installed for the study of detailed structures in the atmosphere. Source: rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp